Thursday, November 22, 2007

New books in mathematics

You can find a lot of free e-books here.Books range from math classics to recently released ones gracefully violating copyrights.I simply believe knowledge should be free.

Some good books of my interest:

1.The art of Counting - Paul Erdos.

2.Combinatorics - Peter Cameron.

3.A course in combinatorics - van Lint and Wilson

4.Enumerative Combinatorics - R P Stanley

5.Research Problems in Discrete geometry - Peter Brass et al

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

klien's problem

I found this problem asing to be attacked by PHP, later I learnt this was generalized by Erdos and Szekeres(happy ending problem).

Let there be 5 points arbitrarily lying on a plane.Prove that we can find four points that form a convex quadrilateral.

classic proof: If the smallest convex polygon encompassing all the points is quadrilateral or pentagon, then we are done. Else, if it is a triangle (say ABC) and D and E are interior points.Among three points A, B, C two points lie on one side of DE and we are done.
Another proof:(I feel this is not elegant as the previous one)

Let three points A,B,C form a triangle.Now I think how I can introduce the 4th point.Reffering to pic1 if I introduce the 4th point in the non red regions we are done. So let me proceed by putting 4th point in red region. This results in pic2 that is equivalent to introducing the 4th point within triangle ABC.
If the 5th point is introduced outside triangle ABC we are done.Else if introduced within ABC we get a convex quadrilateral involving D.

Monday, November 19, 2007

Hit by PHP (Pigeon hole principle)

Problem: For coprime a and b, a/b has period of reccurance of length atmost b-1.

This next one is a classic.
Let there be n integers not necessarily distinct.Prove that we pick k (< (n+1)) integers which is divisible by n.

Let i_1, i_2,..., i_n be the integers.

Let a_1=i_1,
a_2=i_1 + i_2

If one of the a_j ( j=1,..,n ) is divisible by n we are done,else by php we can find a_r and a_s (r>s)giving same remainder. Then a_r-a_s gives rem 0 and we are done.

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Yet another counting problem

This seems to fall for computation, I am looking at a possible elegant solution.
Problem:Let us have a n*n square.Two squares(both of dimension less than n*n)form an unordered pair if

(i) They have atleast one 1*1 square common.

(ii)One is not contained in the other.

Compute the number of unordered pairs.

(nothing sacred about squares, rectangles must make the problem tougher)

Friday, November 02, 2007

Computing a few Invertible matrices

Problem: Enumerate and generate the number of invertible matrices (n*n) with each entry either 0 or 1.

Example: For n=2, we have a set of 6 matrices. They are

Interestingly, these matrices form a group under matrix multiplication.

A much more harder problem would be to enumerate and generate all invertible (n*n) matrices with enrites fron the set { 0,1,...,n-1 }.